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Sharding is a term used to describe horizontal division of data. This means that a single large amount of data is divided into units called Shard and processed in parallel. This process not only improves processing performance, but also extends the capacity of the database. If you apply it to an Ethereum of blockchain, you can handle many transactions in the block, which greatly increases the speed and improves the capacity problems that are increasingly occurring in the blockchain, which is very helpful in solving the scalability problem.

Sharding of Ethereum divides the Structure of a block that connected to an existing chain into two horizontal layers. One layer is the main chain and the other is the shard chain. There are many shards in the shard chain, and there are Collation, which is the same concept as the blocks in the main chain. Unlike the main chain where a block is created by mining, in a shard chain, a node acting as a Proposer, like the proposer, collects the transactions and submits them to Collator, which acts as a validation node. Collaters are randomly selected and when their verification is complete, the node acting as an Excuter passes to the SMC(Sharding Manage Contract) in the main chain, and the result of the shard chain is reflected in the main chain.

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Ethereum is one of the scalability solutions that will be reflected in Ethereum 2.0 now. Sharding is also included and is divided into 6 phases.

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