Blockchain Academy
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Casper

At the Serenity stage, which is the final stage of the Ethereum development roadmap, it is the project convert from PoW, the current consensus algorithm, to PoS (Proof of Stake), which is called the equity verification method. PoS algorithm is a way to determine the blocks by voting according to the deposited amount, unlike the mining type PoW mining that uses huge computing resources, the computing power is no longer needed and the equipment and power are no longer needed. It also eliminates the possibility of 51% Attack, which can manipulate blockchain data with more than 51% of the computing power, and greatly reduces block creation time, further enhancing scalability. The first version of Ethereum's Casper project takes a hybrid form that uses both PoW and PoS. A checkpoint is made for every 50 blocks (previously 100 blocks were checkpoints, but it was modified). Nodes that have deposited more than a certain amount are being verifier by verifying the block and then finalizing the block by voting for each checkpoint. In this process, the votes are voted according to the share, not the 1 vote, and the confirmation is confirmed with the approval of 2/3 of the shares of all the auditors. Verifiers who have the right consensus in the block settlement process will be compensated, but the verifier with the wrong action will be confiscated.

The detailed Casper protocol can be found at the following link.

Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget - https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.09437.pdf